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CDRI Desert NewsFlash
June 2021
"You must be the quiet type." thought the Scott's Oriole.  Photo by Alan Wintz.  

CDRI is fully open!
On Friday, May 21, the Chihuahuan Desert Nature Center fully reopened. Although we had reopened all of the outdoor features a year earlier, on June 15, 2020, for some visitors, CDRI wasn't truly open until the Powell Visitor Center, and the Gift Shop were open. Welcoming visitors inside has been fun for the CDRI team, and we're pretty sure our visitors agree.   
All ticket sales now take place at the Information Desk inside the PVC. For those of you who have already pre-purchased your tickets online, don't worry! We have your ticket receipt(s) at the Information Desk. We'll need your name when you arrive. 
The Gift Shop is fully restocked. We're excited to have new books in our inventory, including Parking Lot Birding by Jennifer Bristol, foreword by Richard Louv, and The Natural History of the Trans-Pecos by Brian Chapman and Eric Bolen, introduction by John Karges. 

In addition to getting the PVC and Gift Shop ready for our May 21st opening, CDRI enjoyed some great media time during May. Working with CDRI's host camper, Wendi Bates, as a videographer, CDRI's Head Gardener, Seth Hamby, and I made a 15-minute video for the American Public Gardens Association (APGA) Go Public Gardens Days (May 10). Texas Master Gardeners also shared the video with participants the following week at their annual statewide conference.  Click here to watch the video.
Additionally, Seth and I presented a one-hour program for the Texas Master Gardeners Conference on May 19. Then, on May 20th, I gave a different program to the Austin Cactus & Succulent Society. 
Exciting things are happening in June  
at Your Nature Center!

Beginning June 1, we'll be open throughout the week with hours shown below:
Monday - Saturday 9:00-5:00
Sunday 12:30-5:00
The Botanical Gardens will get a fresh new look with bright and colorful interpretive panels at the Pollinator Garden.
We will also install interpretive panels at the new Cactus Garden located at the Maxie Templeton Cactus Museum Collection.
And, we will add colorful directional signs along the Botanical Garden path and the path to the Bird Blind. 
Inside the Powell Visitor Center, we anticipate completing a fun, new, and informative Scat and Tracks display.  We'll follow up with details and pictures in the July Desert NewsFlash on all new installations
We have a lot of information and articles that follow in this newsletter. We hope you enjoy it. We always love hearing from you, and we look forward to welcoming you to the Chihuahuan Desert Nature Center & Botanical Gardens soon! 
Thank you to each of you for your continued support.

Lisa Gordon, Executive Director
If you build it, they will come.
by Lisa Gordon
Birds!  Did you know that CDRI, located in the grassland foothills of the Davis Mountains, sits right in the middle of a flyway for migrating birds? At our site, more than 150 species of birds have been observed. Having a bird blind has made birding and bird watching easier and more fun for many of our visitors – both seasoned birders and those who are new to birding.   
Volunteer Ralph Reed first suggested the concept of having a bird blind at CDRI. This conversation spanned almost a year discussing birds and bird blind designs. Ralph convinced us that if we built it, birds and birders would come. Ralph also insisted that we have a water feature with our bird blind.  That was in 2016. Fast forward to 2021, and we gladly admit that Ralph was right. 
In late fall 2016, Rick Herrman, CDRI Executive Director at that time, and I took off to discover what a bird blind looked like and to ask important questions like, "How much does it cost to feed the birds?" And, "Do donations left at the bird blind cover the cost to feed the birds?" We didn't have to go very far – just about 10 miles up Highway 118 to the Davis Mountains State Park. We came back to CDRI knowing that besides a little house-like structure from which birders could comfortably view birds, an exceptional water feature would be the main attraction – for birds, as well as for people watching and photographing birds. 
On January 1, 2017, Rick and CDRI's (then) Maintenance Supervisor, Gina Livingston, began construction on the shelter that is now the Bird Blind. Neither had built a bird blind before, but that didn't slow them down. Once the shelter was completed, the water feature was next. It required heavy lifting of literally tons of rocks, aided by students from the High Frontier School (then located across the highway from CDRI).
We were ready for birds with the rock construction complete and the water feature's solar pump installed. All that it took to get the birds to the site, besides water, was wild bird seed, black oil sunflower seed, nyger (thistle) seed, suet, peanut butter, and oranges. So we might alter that phrase, "Build it, and they will come," to, "Provide plenty of food and water, and they will definitely come – and stay for a while."
The number of birders since 2017 has steadily increased, and we have been delighted to see visitors of all ages who are interested in the grassland birds that visit the site. During spring 2021, we saw Cedar Waxwing, Western Tanager, Indigo Bunting, Blue Grosbeak, Black-headed Grosbeak, Scott's Oriole, Cactus Wren, and in all honesty – too many to list here!  
Included below is a photo taken during the construction of the Bird Blind and the completed water feature (2017) along with photos of some of the birds we've seen in 2021.  Next time you're at the CDRI Nature Center, we highly recommend setting aside some time to visit the Bird Blind. When you're at the Powell Visitor Center, be sure to pick up a free birding checklist containing an extensive list of birds you're likely to see at the CDRI site. 
Rick Herrman and Gina Livingston at work building the Bird Blind.    
The first test run (above) to see how the water feature would work (3/2017).    .
    White-Crowned Sparrow (above, left) and Mountain Bluebirds (above, right). Photos by Alan Wintz.
Western Tanager (above, left) and Indigo Bunting (above, right). Photos by Alan Wintz.      
Cedar Waxwing (above, left) and Western Kingbird (above, right). Photos by Ad Konings.   
Woodhouse's Scrub Jay (above). Photo by Alan Wintz.     
Look what's new at the Bird Blind!
This is a story about something "old" that is new again.  In 2018, wildlife photographer, Carol Diquilio, created a series of collages showing birds that are frequently seen at the CDRI site.  These were laminated, then mounted on a foam core backing. Hanging on the walls inside the bird blind, the photos have been well-received as a quick reference guide for seasoned birders who are new to the area, and they help folks who are new to birding and just getting started. 
We wanted to give a more permanent look to the display. We sent the images to our favorite printer and sign fabricator, Joe Esparza, at PrintCo in Alpine, Texas. Joe printed the images on vinyl and then adhered them to an aluminum metal backing. We think you'll like what you see! The colors are bright, and the birds' details are even more pronounced than before. We invite everyone to visit the Bird Blind and let us know what you think of the new version of the "old" one. 
Above, are some of the panels, created by Carol DiQuilio, showcasing birds that frequent the CDRI site. 
Save the date!
CDRI's BBQ & Auction fundraiser
Saturday, September 25, 2021
$25 per person
Purchase tickets at www.cdri.org starting July 1, 2021.

We have long been proponents of solar energy as an alternative energy source. Two and a half years ago, in February 2019, the Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute (CDRI) was the fortunate recipient of a generous grant from Green Mountain Energy/Sun Club (GME Sun Club) for $27,000. The grant funded the installation (completed May 2019) of a 6.3 kW, 21-panel solar array, which provides electricity to the Cactus Greenhouse and the well-pump. This was the second grant from GME Sun Club – the first being a $30,000 grant in 2013 for a 24-panel solar array that provides 6 kW of solar power to the Powell Visitor Center. 
We are thrilled to have been awarded two separate grants from GME Sun Club. The solar arrays at CDRI have not only cut down on our expenses, but they allow CDRI to be a model to curious visitors who ask us a lot of great questions about solar energy. We believe that CDRI has an important role in sharing information with you as it becomes available. This month, we're sharing an article from Treehugger.com that answers questions about how eco-friendly solar energy really is.  
The photos (below) are of the solar array atop the awning of the Maintenance Building that provides power to the Cactus Greenhouse and well-pump. 
Updated April 19, 2021
The following article is reprinted from Treehugger.com 
In addition to being the cheapest form of electricity in world history, according to the International Energy Agency, solar energy is renewable and will continue to be until the sun begins to run out of hydrogen two billion years from now.1
 But what about the panels that harvest that energy and turn it into electricity? Is that process clean, green, and sustainable? Or does solar energy do more environmental harm than good? This article breaks down just how eco-friendly solar energy is.

What Makes Solar Energy Renewable?

Currently, photovoltaic solar panels are roughly 20-22% efficient at converting the sun's electromagnetic radiation (photons) into the electrons it sends to the grid.2 But since the sun sends enough energy every 90 minutes to meet the world's annual energy consumption, efficiency is irrelevant in determining how renewable solar energy is.3 What is relevant is a metric called energy payback time, the time required to generate as much energy as it took to produce, use, and dispose of an energy-generating system. The energy payback time for a rooftop solar system is one to four years, meaning a rooftop solar system with a 30-year lifespan is 87-97% renewable, according to the U.S. Department of Energy.4 This is comparable to the energy payback period of coal; coal is highly energy-dense, so releasing it produces vast amounts of energy, enough for its energy payback time to be one to two years.5 The key difference with solar energy, however, is that unlike the sun's energy, coal itself is not renewable.

Is Solar a Green and Clean Form of Energy?

Because they emit zero greenhouse gases, solar energy systems are “clean” in their production of electricity, but studying the entire life cycle of solar panels (from raw material extraction to panel disposal) shows them to be less clean. How “green” solar energy is involves looking into areas beyond greenhouse gas emissions to the larger environmental impact in areas such as air pollution, toxic waste, and other factors. No energy production is completely clean or green, but when comparing the life cycle impact of all sources of power, solar is among the cleanest and greenest.
According to life-cycle assessment research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a solar power plant emits roughly 40 grams of carbon dioxide for each kilowatt-hour of energy produced. (A kilowatt-hour, or kWh, is the amount of energy produced or consumed.) By contrast, a coal plant produces roughly 1,000 grams of carbon dioxide per kWh.6 Most importantly, while 98% of coal's emissions came from hard-to-abate operational processes (such as transport and combustion), 60-70% of solar's emissions come in upstream processes like raw materials extraction and module manufacture, which are easier to mitigate.7 The same applies to wider environmental impacts, such as the use of hazardous materials and toxic chemicals in both the production and disposal of solar panels, which can be mitigated by recycling, waste minimization programs, and changes in the manufacturing process, such as the use of cleaner sources of energy used to produce the panels.8

How Sustainable Is Solar Energy?

Measuring how sustainable solar energy is means using a life-cycle assessment for all of its environmental impacts. What is the effect of solar power plants on land-use patterns and habitat loss? How much freshwater is used in the production of solar panels? What is the source of the energy used to produce solar panels, and how much greenhouse gas do they emit? How are the raw materials extracted, and how renewable or recyclable are those materials? And perhaps most importantly, how do all those assessments compare to the alternatives? For example, it may be more sustainable to produce solar panels in an area of the world with low levels of solar insolation (like high-latitude countries) and install them in areas where lots of the sun's energy reaches Earth (like low-latitude deserts), unless each of those areas contains fragile ecosystems or the transportation of materials halfway around the world involves burning more fossil fuels than the panels replace.
It's worth remembering that all energy on Earth comes (or has come) from the sun. Ideally, the most sustainable use of that energy is the one that is most efficient at converting the sun's energy to usable “final” energy (whether for heat, transportation, manufacturing, or electricity) with the least environmental impact. While fossil fuels are energy-dense, they contain less than 1% of the solar energy that plants converted using photosynthesis during the Carboniferous period. This makes them far and away the least efficient source of energy, independent from their environmental impact. Every energy source has many variables that need to be balanced in order to most closely reach that ideal, but none other than Thomas Edison, inventor, efficiency expert, and developer of the modern electricity grid, knew where to place his bets: "I’d put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don’t have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that."
Click for full article and article sources: https://www.treehugger.com/is-solar-energy-renewable-5179476

Volunteer Spotlight

We enjoy featuring one of our volunteers each month to give our Desert NewsFlash subscribers some insight into who is working behind the scenes. This month, our featured volunteer is Glen Eisen.
Glen began volunteering at CDRI in February 2021. Glen works on Wednesdays, helping Head Gardener Seth Hamby with the cactus garden landscape project in front of the Maxie Templeton Cactus Museum Collection. Getting to know Glen has been a delight for all of us at the Nature Center. We think you'll agree.
CDRI: Where are you from and how did you end up in Fort Davis?
Glen: I grew up on a livestock farm in Hamilton County, Texas. I may have gotten my love for the American Southwest from my Dad, who was a New Mexico ranch hand before he entered World War II.  As a young man, I took a few motorcycle trips to Far West Texas and really enjoyed them.  My wife, Robin, and I love the mountains out here and really appreciate having four seasons and a mild climate.  We also have roots out here--Robin's mother was from Fort Stockton, and her father was from Alpine.  


CDRI: How long have you volunteered at CDRI and how did you get started there?

Glen: I started volunteering in February of this year. We bought our Limpia Crossing property in 2012 and completed our house in 2016.  We became CDRI members after we bought our property and would often tour the botanical gardens or hike the trails on our frequent trips out here from Houston.


CDRI: What other local volunteer work have you done?

Glen: None.  I intended to become a Texas Master Naturalist last year but the training program was canceled because of the pandemic.  I expect to complete the training and become a Texas Master Naturalist this year.  I will be volunteering through that program when I am eligible to do so.  I can think of other local opportunities to volunteer but perhaps I shouldn't get ahead of myself by identifying them here.


CDRI: Why do you think it is important to volunteer?

Glen: It's a good idea to become part of something that is larger than oneself.


CDRI: What do you enjoy most about volunteering?

Glen: Contributing to something lasting that the public can enjoy.  I'll happily admit that I also enjoy meeting people with whom I have common interests.


CDRI: Best outdoor experience in West Texas.

Glen: Just about anything outdoors is enjoyable in this climate.  That includes outdoor projects around our place.  I can comfortably work outdoors all day on those projects.  That was not the case in Houston heat and humidity.  My Central Texas childhood home was hot and humid, too.


CDRI:  What do you enjoy most about living in Far West Texas?

Glen: It's probably a toss-up between the climate, as discussed above, and the scenery.  We have great views of Blue Mountain, large trees along Olds 
Creek, a 15-section ranch, and McDonald Observatory.  I enjoy the daily reminders that long-standing traditions and cutting-edge scientific research can coexist. I'll also add that people out here are refreshingly authentic.


CDRI:  What are your hobbies?

Glen: Gardening (in my greenhouse, and hopefully in our courtyard when we can get some help working out a landscaping plan), working in my shop (mostly welding projects), reading (mostly nonfiction), cooking, and travel.  I'm also looking forward to becoming a Master Naturalist so as to become truly knowledgeable about the geology, plants, and animals of this region.


CDRI: Do you have any advice for people who are interested in volunteering

Glen: Get started somewhere, and things will roll.


CDRI: If you could be an animal in the Chihuahuan Desert, which would you pick and why?

Glen: Probably a mountain lion. It might be a bit lonesome but I'd have no natural predators and wouldn't be eaten.

Thank you, Glen, for volunteering and for all you do to create a beautiful site for visitors to enjoy.
Garden Notes
One Heck of a Year!
By Seth Hamby

The 2020-2021 year has been a rough one in many ways. By the afternoon of March 16, 2020, as we had just launched the second week of our Annual Cactus & Succulent Sale, we made the difficult decision to close CDRI for 90 days amid the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. While the virus wreaked untold havoc on the lives of people around the world, the Trans-Pecos region of Texas, and much of the western and southwestern United States, experienced an additional crisis – a profound and historic drought. I have received several emails voicing concern for the status of water at CDRI and, more generally, for the Trans-Pecos region, so I feel addressing some of these unique challenges in light of the broader challenges we faced in 2020, now 2021, is appropriate and necessary.

 The Lack of Precipitation in the Region
According to the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Jeff Davis County received 8.04 inches of precipitation in 2020. According to the Texas State Historical Association, the average annual precipitation for Jeff Davis County is 18 inches.
Anyone familiar with West Texas will know how spotty rainfall can be. Two areas a mile apart can receive drastically different weather; one can be bone dry, while the other location can experience a flash flood event. CDRI, located in Jeff Davis County, received right around 6 inches of precipitation in 2020, making it at least 2 inches below the County average. Based on the available information, even if we use the County average of 8.04 inches, 2020 was the third driest year in recorded history since 1902.  These record-setting dates include 1956 with 5.63 inches and the two-year historic drought of 2011 with 5.62 inches, and 2012 with 7.49 inches.
The Region E Planning Group of the Texas Water Development Board encompasses seven counties within the Rio Grande River Basin: Brewster, Culberson, El Paso, Hudspeth, Jeff Davis, Presidio, and Terrell. The City of El Paso, in which 96% of the entire West Texas population resides, obtains ~50% of their municipal and agricultural water needs from groundwater pumped from the Mesilla and Hueco bolsons during the winter months. The remaining 50% comes from the Rio Grande during the summer. In all other counties within this group, nearly all other water is acquired from groundwater sources. There are more individual aquifers (14) in Region E than any other Water Development Region in Texas.
There are three basic types of aquifers in the region: alluvium, bolson, and bedrock.
  • Alluvium aquifers occur in the floodplain deposits of riverbeds.
  • Bolson aquifers occur in sedimentary deposits that fill the valleys between mountain ranges.
  • Bedrock aquifers are those where water penetrates through permeable fractures in hard-rock formations.
CDRI sits atop a vast igneous bedrock aquifer, known as the Davis Mountains Igneous Aquifer, covering much of Brewster, Jeff Davis, and Presidio Counties. This igneous aquifer supplies the municipal water needs of Alpine, Fort Davis, and Marfa, as well as being the source of water for regional agricultural and livestock businesses.  For an exhaustive report on the water resources of West Texas, see:
The water for the domestic and irrigation needs of the Chihuahuan Desert Nature Center and Botanical Gardens is pumped from a single well located near the Maxie Templeton Cactus Museum. Because of the pressure constrictions based on the available output of our well, a coordinated and systematic water use regime must be followed to ensure equitable use between the Botanical Gardens and the Powell Visitor Center. The increased demand for the irrigation of the Botanical Gardens due to drought conditions has been challenging. One silver lining to the closing of the Powell Visitor Center to guests (from 3-16-20 to 5-18-21) resulted in reduced water demand. In addition, Executive Director Lisa Gordon and our team of outstanding volunteers have stepped up this spring to help water-thirsty plants on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
 The Deep Freeze of February 2021
In addition to a global pandemic and a historic drought, Mother Nature handed us an extreme arctic outbreak event in early February 2021. At CDRI, temperatures bottomed out at 0°F with a windchill factor of negative -12°F. While the rest of the affected area in the U.S. suffered $196 billion in damages and loss of life, CDRI was incredibly lucky with almost no plant loss casualties.
On February 14, 2021, around 4:00 a.m., during the coldest part of the storm, CDRI lost power, including power for our greenhouses. We were all biting our nails with anxiety at the thought of a mass loss of our collection, but all we could do was sit and wait for electricity to be restored. Unlike most other parts of Texas, the aridity and lack of water vapor in the west Texas winter air allowed temperatures to rise above freezing during the day – likely sparing us from certain disaster. Underneath the steel tables in the cactus house, we have large black barrels filled with water that warm up during the day and radiate heat at night, likely helping our plants stay alive. Plus, the sheer mass of the barrels taking up space under the tables doesn’t allow for any additional space for cold air to collect under the tables and underneath the plants.
Outside in the gardens, the plants received very little lasting damage, with the majority of plants now coming back beautifully. In our Fabaceae section (Pea Family), the top wood of several species died, but they are all beginning to put out new growth at their bases. I have been busy pruning back plants to allow the new growth access to sunlight, and I have devoted extra water to them to give them a head start. We likely only lost one plant during the whole ordeal, but I am continuing to “baby” that individual in hopes that it will respond. 
The impact of the drought and record freeze on wildlife across Texas has been catastrophic. As of May 18, 2021, the U.S. Drought Monitor continues to list Jeff Davis County as being in an “Exceptional Drought,” and the 60-day Precipitation Index remains “Abnormally Dry.” Climate projections for the Chihuahuan Desert predict increased average temperatures, decreased precipitation, and a general expansion of desert scrub associated with losses in marginal and specialized habitats and communities. Based on these predictions, we must utilize our resources wisely to maximize efficiency and sustainability for humans and wildlife.
For more information, see:
At CDRI, we continue to water wisely while very carefully monitoring the individual condition of each plant. We can’t strive enough for how important it is to water all of your plants – even those hardy plants that you were able to ignore in past years because they seemed to take care of themselves.
We hope you can visit the Davis Mountain region this summer as you seek respite from the summer’s heat and enjoy a stroll through CDRI’s lush, green gardens. We look forward to welcoming you soon!
Thank you to all of our CDRI Volunteers
CDRI's volunteers are a valuable addition to CDRI in many ways. Volunteers help make the learning stations at our year-round educational programs come to life with their enthusiasm and knowledge of the subject matter. Volunteers are also important in filling the role of interpretive guide, leading hikes and garden tours for all age groups.  For CDRI's Adopt-a-Highway days, they help remove trash and debris along the two-mile stretch of roadway on either side of the entrance gate. And, they help out with trail maintenance, including building and installing directional signage along the trails. Possibly the most important value added is the link our volunteers provide CDRI to the community. 
As we, like many Texans, recover from the arctic storm last February, CDRI's volunteers have come to the rescue in the Botanical Gardens by watering and pruning specific plants that were hit hard by the freeze and that require some TLC.   
And, since mid-January, other volunteers have been moving boulders, digging holes, planting cacti, and hauling and spreading gravel at the newly landscaped area in front of the cactus greenhouse. That work is nearing completion.
For all that our volunteers do – from helping make CDRI a special place for visitors to assisting with educating "our" kids to making sure that visitors of all ages have a fun and memorable experience, we would like to thank you very much for your work and your dedication. Thank you!
If you've been thinking about volunteering but haven't yet, email us at: programs@cdri.org.  
Teresa Swann, (above, left) from Austin, Texas, volunteers at CDRI whenever she gets a chance to get away from the city.  Nancy Foxworthy volunteered throughout the pandemic, coming to CDRI each Wednesday. Now, she's volunteering two days a week!
Judy Reichelderfer (above, left) has volunteered each week during the pandemic and continues to come and help in the garden and with other projects. Annette Carter (above right) has recently moved to Fort Davis and is now one of our regular volunteers.
Margaret Mannchen (above, left) has been coming each Monday to care for the "Wildscape Garden" around the Powell Visitor Center.  And, Mark Rapp (above, right) helped recently with the landscape project at the cactus greenhouse site. 
CDRI Memberships deliver more
than ever before!
Memberships to the CDRI Nature Center are up! Thank you to each of you who have renewed your membership and to the many new members! 
Of course, your membership provides free admission to the Nature Center, plus a 10% discount in the Gift Shop, plus discounts to programs; BUT, did you know that your membership gives you free admission to over 330 botanical gardens and 125 nature centers across the United States
It's true.  The CDRI Nature Center is now a member of both the American Horticultural Society and the Association of Nature Center Administrators. We are active participants in the Reciprocal Admission Programs with both organizations. 
Your CDRI Nature Center membership is a display of your generous support of our mission to "promote public awareness, appreciation, and concern for nature generally, and the natural diversity of the Chihuahuan Desert Region specifically, through education, the visitor experience, and through the support of research." 
 Membership dues from over 400 active members provide nearly 15% of CDRI's operating budget, a vital component of our growth and sustainability.  Thank you for supporting CDRI with your membership. 

Joe Mussey! 
Summertime: It's a great time to get away
   and enjoy the outdoors!
We welcomed this group of "mostly" doctors (above) who traveled from across the country to explore the desert Southwest. Some traveled from Illinois (Chicago), while others came from Maine, Texas (Houston), Oregon, and several locations in between.
Protect your pup against summer's heat
We understand your enthusiasm for wanting to hike all of the trails. And, we know how you want your best friend to experience the trails with you. When your best friend is your dog, please consider the safety and well-being of him/her the same as you would of your child or an aging parent or grandparent. The trails can be rough on your dog's paws, while the ground absorbs heat throughout the day, which could burn the pads of their paws.
This story isn't to shame anyone. It's to remind everyone to think responsibly for your pup's well-being. The photos below are from our first dog rescue. This beautiful Golden Retriever hiked to the bottom of Modesta Canyon and made her way back to the surface level before she gave out.  Hiker Chris Carlin happened to see the dog and her humans in distress. Running back to the Visitor Center, Chris rounded up help from friends in his group, along with CDRI gardener Seth Hamby. We had a quilt at the Visitor Center that made a sturdy sling to carry an 80-pound dog back safely.  
We're happy the saga had a happy ending, and we are grateful to Chris and the others for coming to the rescue.
Photos by Chris Carlin.  

From "the best rural Nature Center in Texas"
We hope you'll come see us soon, and often!

The above photos are by Danny Hancock.    
The above photo is by Alan Wintz.    
Remember to stay hydrated while enjoying your summer!
Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute, P.O. Box 905, Fort Davis, TX 79734


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