Newsletter | January 2018
Dear CPC friends and colleagues:
Happy New Year! In this edition of our newsletter, we are proud to open with the progress that PUSKAPA, our amazing affilite in Indonesia, the Center on Child Protection and Well-Being, has been making in helping the government to improve child policies. It is also our pleasure to share with you a special issue  of the Journal of Adolescent Health with contributions from a number of CPC affiliates; it focuses on economic strengthening interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa among impoverished adolescents. As always, we are also excited to present recent publications and opportunities from the CPC Learning Network and partner agencies. 
The launch of a new year often brings with it transitions, and below you will learn about comings and goings of some of our key research associates.  We're also excited to announce that we are hiring for two positions: a Senior Program Officer and a Program Officer.  Please read more below if you are interested or would like to spread the word.  Finally, I am delighted to announce that--in reflection with the CPC Learning Network's illustrious Advisory Board--we have decided that my long-time associate Mark Canavera should join me as a co-director of the network's many spinning wheels.
As we launch into the new year, we look forward to working with you in pursuit of a world where children are safe and healthy. 
Lindsay Stark, Director
 Indonesia in Focus

We are proud to highlight the work of PUSKAPA, the Center on Child Protection & Well-Being at the University of Indonesia, which has successfully completed some critical work and evolved as an organization in the past year. PUSKAPA works to help policy makers improve children's access to health, education, justice, and social care in Indonesia.  This core affiliate of the CPC Learning Network continued to establish the child well-being longitudinal study to explore how to help children and families to escape from adversity.  PUSKAPA has also been leading, in collaboration with UNICEF and the Government of Indonesia, a learning series on ending childhood violence, a key priority for the Government as a pathfinder country in the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children.
Under the leadership of Santi Kusumaningrum and her growing team, PUSKAPA continues to be a global leader on the issue of legal identity, civil registration, and vital statistics, a woefully overlooked area of public health and sustainable development that has served as core area of work for the Center.  PUSKAPA supported the government in finalizing technical guidelines, standard operating procedures (SOPs), and policy documents that, once adopted, can open even bigger and more inclusive access to population registration services and facilitate cross-sectoral vital data sharing and interoperability for more appropriate planning and budgeting. Additionally, PUSKAPA helped the government in finalizing a roadmap towards inclusive healthcare services and contributed to the formulation of national regulations to protect children from violence and to uphold the rights of people with disabilities.
PUSKAPA excels in making sure that the evidence that it generates translates directly into action.  Through collaboration with local civil society organizations, PUSKAPA supported the registration of birth, marriage, death, and biodata of over fifty thousand individuals in sixteen districts of Indonesia. Of those applications, over forty thousand legal identify documents were issued. PUSKAPA conducted thorough research and held public discussions throughout last year highlighting the latest evidence on the state of Indonesia's younger populations and future implications.
As a final update, PUSKAPA is undertaking major advocacy around Indonesia’s penal code with the hope of delaying the code’s formalization, expected by the middle of this year.  As Santi Kusumaningrum writes: “Criminalization is the crudest form of exclusion. Indonesia's penal code bill as it stands today is in that exclusionary spirit. It criminalizes sexual behaviors out of wedlock, putting tens of millions young people and adults in risk of losing access to safe and appropriate reproductive health services. It criminalizes couples without legal marriage [despite that] over half of couples in poorer households do not own a marriage certificate. It ups incentives for child marriage as a rational option to avoid jail. It will throw girls out of school and kill those who have no option but to take care of their unwanted pregnancy on their own.”  Once passed, the penal code could affect the peace, security, and well-being of Indonesians’ lives across differences of age, gender, religion, ethnicity, and class. PUSKAPA is advocating at the highest levels to ensure that the code does not undermine evidence, negatively impact marginalized groups, or block the government's priorities to reach its health, education, and welfare targets.
Read more about PUSKAPA's critical work here
Articles and Report by CPC Faculty Affiliates
Article: Resilience in Context: A Brief and Culturally Grounded Measure for Syrian Refugee and Jordanian Host-Community Adolescents
Building resilience in people affected by war is a priority for humanitarian workers, but there is no established measure to help assess the strengths that young people in the Middle East have in adversity. This gap makes it difficult to assess the nature of resilience and to track changes over time. This article in the Journal of Child Development by faculty affiliate Alastair Ager and fellow researchers, in partnership with humanitarian organizations working on the Syrian-Jordanian border, details findings from a newly developed survey tool used to measure resilience in children and adolescents displaced by the conflict in Syria. The survey tool, Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12 and CYRM-28), is designed to help researchers and service providers to craft effective interventions that bolster people's strengths, and it will help humanitarian organizations evaluate their programs for young people and their families. 
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Ager here
Article: Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Motivation to Register Births in Lombok, Indonesia
Despite government interest in promoting birth registration, more than a third of Indonesian children do not have a birth certificate, affecting the realization of both their human and citizen rights. While barriers to registering children's birth in Indonesia have been assessed, there is limited research on how communities perceive the importance of having a birth certificate. This article, recently published in Children & Society by CPC director Lindsay Stark and colleagues at PUSKAPA , used focus group discussions to explore parental motivations around birth registration. The results of a thematic analysis found that perceived use of birth certificates, perceived control over the application process, and social norms related to certificate ownership affect the intention to apply. 
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Stark here
Article: Expert understandings of supervision as a means to strengthen the social service workforce - results from a global Delphi study
Learning on how effective social work supervision can strengthen the social service workforce is especially limited in low- and middle income countries. To address this gap, CPC faculty affiliate Bree Akesson and co-director Mark Canavera recently published an article in the European Journal of Social Work drawing from a global study examining practices and approaches to effectively strengthen the social service workforce. Using a Delphi consensus methodology, the study provided a highly structured means to distil key lessons learned by experts across a range of practice and geographical settings. The findings indicate that most experts strongly agree that access to quality supervision is important. There is also agreement related to the ways in which supervision should be carried out including: individual and group supervision, role-playing, constructive feedback on practice, and flexibility in the supervisor-supervisee relationship. However, there is still indecision as to whether supervision should be non-hierarchical and egalitarian or, alternatively, directive and regulative. Finally, there was disagreement as to whether supervision should be incentivized. The diversity of participants’ examples suggests that the concept of ‘supervision’ is likely to be subject to highly localized variations that will challenge attempts at creating universally applicable paradigms.
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Akesson here
Article: How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia
Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This recently published article in Global Mental Health, by CPC director Lindsay Stark and colleagues, explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescents girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. The study finds that, while a girl's personal attitudes supporting gender inequitable roles have no effect on her self-esteem, the collective attitudes of her peers (collective peer norms) are significantly associated with lower self-esteem. In other words, a girl's agreement with gender inequitable statement did not translate to a diminished concept of self; in contrast, being surrounded by peers who adhere to norms that devalue girls resulted in lower self-esteem.
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Stark here
Article: The influence of caregiver depression on adolescent mental health outcomes - Findings from refugee settlements in Uganda
Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, CPC faculty affiliate Sarah Meyer, director Lindsay Stark, and colleagues, explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda. The paper published in BMC Psychiatry reveals that adolescent well-being is significantly affected by caregiver mental health in this refugee context. Child protection interventions in humanitarian contexts do not adequately address the influence of caregivers' mental health, and there are opportunities to integrate child protection programming with prevention and treatment of caregivers' mental health symptoms.
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Meyer here
Report: Evaluation of Big Belly Business Program Pilot in Liberia
The Government of Liberia has rightly put much effort into strengthening a healthcare system that faces significant challenges. In its post-conflict, post-Ebola health strategy, Liberia has prioritized the Reproductive, Maternal, New-Born, Child, and Adolescent Health (RMNCAH) agenda. The primary goal of its current Health Investment Plan is "improved maternal health status of the Liberian population." This past summer, the Open Society Foundations commissioned the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University to conduct an end-of-project evaluation of the Big Belly Business pilot program, which promoted healthy pregnancies and sought to combat Liberia's high maternal and neonatal mortality rates. The evaluation team led by CPC faculty affiliate Cassie Landers and co-director Mark Canavera completed the assessment and published findings in a final report. 
Access the report here, or contact Dr. Landers here
Special Issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health
Special Issue: Economic Strengthening and Adolescent Health
A key task for adolescents worldwide is to develop the skills that they need to support themselves economically in adulthood. This is a challenging feat under the best of circumstances, but it becomes daunting in the face of deep poverty, poor health, and the lack of social supports. In response, policymakers and funders have been testing a number of economic strengthening interventions intended to provide material and other intangible resources that will reduce the risk that youth will make poor choices, improve their health and well-being, and ultimately break the intergenerational cycle of poverty. This supplement to the Journal of Adolescent Health, supported by Columbia University and Washington University in St. Louis, presents the results from four such interventions that have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa among impoverished adolescents.  Numerous CPC faculty affiliates contributed to the special issue.
The economic strengthening strategies described in these articles are quite varied, but a common element for all but one is participation in savings plans. For these programs, the research findings indicate promising results in terms of better health, mental health, and educational attainment and less risky employment for program participants. They indicate that strategies that include elements directly addressing the economic situations of children in deep poverty can lead to improvements in health, schooling, and employment outcomes. Approaches such as these conform with the emerging understanding in the field that an individual's health is deeply rooted in his or her economic and social environment. Together the results provide jusitification for futher investments in research and programming that combine economic strengthening with other prevention and care strategies. With so many children in the world growing up improverished, it is imperative that this work continue. 

Access the entire special issue here.  
Cost-Effectiveness of a Savings-Led Economic Empowerment Intervention for AIDS-Affected Adolescents in Uganda: Implications for Scale-up in Low-Resource Communities
This article by CPC faculty affiliate Fred Ssewamala and colleagues examined the cost-effectiveness of an economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-affected adolescents in Uganda. In this project, researchers conducted a randomized control trial (Bridges) with three intervention arms: (1) usual care (counseling, school lunches, and scholastic materials), (2) additional financial literacy workshops, mentors, and a 1:1 matched child savings account to be used for secondary education and microenterprise, and (3) same services as group 2 except the match is 2:1 for the savings account. Children in the two treatment arms fared better on measures of health, mental health, and education than those in usual care, but there were few differences between those who were assigned to the 1:1 match versus the 2:1 match. The average marginal costs for the two-year intervention were modest at $300 and $308 per person beyond the usual cost of care. Children in the intervention arms also opened savings accounts, depositing about $6 on average of their own funds. 
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Ssewamala here.
Effects of a Social Empowerment Intervention on Economic Vulnerability for Adolescent Refugee Girls in Ethiopia
This article by CPC director Lindsay Stark and colleagues studied the effects of a social empowerment intervention on economic vulnerability among adolescent refugee girls in Ethiopia. In this study, the intervention consisted of group sessions led weekly by a female mentor covering life skills including money management, savings plans, decision-making, reproductive health, gender norms, and safety planning. The male and female caregivers of these girls also attended monthly discussion groups focusing on positive relationship giving, communication, discipline methods, and other developmental and cultural issues. After 10 months in the intervention, girls in the treatment arm resembled girls in the control group on school attendance, work for pay, and transactional sexual exploitation. The authors speculate that the intervention might be more effective if it included more concrete economic empowerment strategies. 
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Stark here.
Integrating Economic Strengthening and Family Coaching to Reduce Work-Related Health Hazards Among Children of Poor Households: Burkina Faso
This article by Dr. Leyla Karimli and colleagues, which was undertaken in the CPC's priority country Burkina Faso, examines the effect of economic strengthening alone versus combining it with family coaching on reductions in children's hazardous work and world-related health outcomes. This randomized control trial in Burkina Faso tested an economic strengthening intervention for female caregivers that consisted of the formation of a women's informal savings group, livelihood and household management training, a seed capital grant, and mentoring. A second arm of the trial also included family coaching about child protection issues. The authors report reductions in children's exposure to hazardous work in the combination intervention compared with more modest reductions in the single economic strengthening arm, relative to a control group. 
 Access the article here, or contact Dr. Karimli here.
Assessing the Association Between Depression and Savings for Kenyan Youth Using a Validated Child Depression Inventory Measure
This article by Njeri Kgoth and colleagues--including CPC faculty affiliate Fred Ssewamala--uses baseline data from the YouthSave-Impact study, a randomized control trial examining engaging school-going youth in youth savings accounts in Kenya. In particular, the investigators in this project sought to examine the effects of participating in asset building on the physical and mental health of program participants. Using baseline data from the study, they assess how well the 10 items in the Child Depression Inventory commonly used in studies of adolescent depression factor together for Kenyan youth. Their results indicate that an eight-item factor is a preferable measure. Furthermore, they find that adolescents who already have savings at baseline have lower depression scores than those who do not, controlling for household assets. 
Access the article here, or contact Dr. Kagotho here.
Transitions on the CPC Learning Network Team
Welcome, Cyril!
We would like to welcome a returning member to our team, Cyril Bennouna, as a new Senior Research Associate. Cyril has worked on several CPC Learning Network projects, including a global study on the ethics of child participation in emergency-related assessments and research as well as a study exploring the relationship between natural disasters and household violence in Haiti. For two years, Cyril was the Technical Lead for Research at PUSKAPA, the Center on Child Protection and Well-Being at the University of Indonesia, whose updates you can read above. Cyril earned his Master's Degree in Public Health from Columbia University with a focus on forced migration and humanitarian assistance. 
Read Cyril's bio here
Farewell, Beth and Khudejha!
We would like to bid farewell to Beth Rubenstein, who has served as a Senior Research Associate for the past three years. She is moving on to a new position with the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Thank you for all your work, Beth, and best of luck in your future endeavors! 

We also bid adieu to Khudejha Asghar, who worked as a Senior Research Associate with the CPC Learning Network for over two years.  Khudejha will continue to commit herself to reducing family violence in a new position at the International Rescue Committee.  Thanks for all that you do and have done!
Catch up on our Two Most Recent Webinars!
In case you missed it: The Central American Youth Refugee Crisis: Causes, Consequences, and Challenges in the Trump Era
This webinar, featuring Eric Hershberg and Dennis Stinchcomb of American University's Center for Latin American & Latino Studies (CLALS) and law professors Jayesh Rathod and Elissa Steglich, discussed the mass exodus of unaccompanied children and families from the Northern Triangle countries of Central America: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Topics included country conditions driving continued migration, the dangers encountered while journeying through Mexico, detention practices on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, and challenges to securing protection in the U.S. The webinar is of particular interest for advocates and others working on behalf of these new arrivals but also for those advocating for children in areas around the world.  The webinar was originally recorded on November 2, 2017 and moderated by CPC co-director Mark Canavera.
 Access the recording of the webinar and presentation slides here.
In case you missed it: INSPIRE - Seven Strategies for Ending Violence against Children
This webinar presented the INSPIRE document and a summary of key evidence for each of the seven areas. INSPIRE is a resource to help countries and communities intensify their focus on violence prevention programs and services and to ensure that their interventions are evidence-based. The seven strategies are: Implementation and enforcement of laws; Norms and values; Safe environments; Parent and caregiver support; Income and economic strengthening; Response and support services; and Education and life skills. It featured Alex Butchart of the World Health Organization, Sabine Rakotomalala of the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children, and Mark Canavera and Beth Rubenstein of the CPC Learning Network.  The webinar was originally recorded on December 1, 2017.
Access the recording of the webinar here
Articles and Reports from Partners
Article: The Multi-country Study on the Drivers of Violence Affecting Children - A Cross-country Snapshot of Findings
Vulnerability to violence evolves in complex socio-economic and cultural contexts. This locally driven research analyses how institutional, community, interpersonal and individual factors interact to affect violence in children's lives. It also begins to identify pathways to better inform national prevention strategies. This study, by Alina Potts and colleagues with UNICEF office of Research - Innocenti, places age and gender at its center, focusing on girls and boys at different stages of the life course, from the very young to older adolescents. A cornerstone of the study is to link quality research, translating it into evidence, and turning evidence into effective and meaningful interventions. This snapshot provides insights to the complexities that surround violence. Understanding and responding to the political as well as community contexts in which violence occurs builds more meaningful responses. Country teams are now preparing to move to the field and test best approaches to violence prevention based on evidence and using data to drive change. 
Access the article here.
Report: Digital Childhood - Addressing Childhood Development Milestones in the Digital Environment
Published by 5Rights, this Digital Childhood paper considers how growing up in the digital environment directly impacts a child's development trajectory. It concludes that a managed route from infancy to adulthood is as important in the digital environment as it is in the analogue world. This urgently needed report describes the narrative of children and the digital environment. It defines their needs as a series of opportunities and requirements that align with their age and meet their development goals, rather than the current emphasis on a narrow set of adult-identified harms. The authors of this report call on all parties to make a digital environment 'fit for childhood'. 
 Access the report here
Rapport: Les pratiques endogènes de protection des enfants concernés par la mobilité dans le contexte d'urgence à Gao et Tombouctou au Mali 
La présente étude, réalisée par Terre des hommes Mali, vise à identifier les pratiques endogènes de protection (PEP) des enfants en situation de mobilité dans les villes de Gao et Tombouctou, au Mali, à analyser la pertinence et l'utilisation de ces PEP par les acteurs humanitaires dans la constuction des réponses de protection des enfants et, enfin, à déterminer les défis et les pratiques d'intégration de ces pratiques dans la réponse humanitaire nationale. S'appuyant principalement sur le contexte d'urgence au Mali, l'enjeu de la recherche est de déboucher sur la formulation de recommandations de sorte à permettre aux acteurs de la protection d'améliorer leurs stratégies en prenant en compte le contexte local, les acteurs de terrain et les pratiques de protection développées par les communautés elles-mêmes. 
 Accéder au rapport ici
Opportunities to Learn and Share
Call for Papers: XXII International Congress in Prague September 2-5, 2018 
The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) invites all child maltreatment professionals to share experiences, knowledge, and research with colleagues from all over the world at the XXII International Congress held in Prague on September 2-5, 2018. The theme of this year's Congress is Child Protection in the Changing World. The deadline for abstract submission is February 14, 2018
Learn more and submit abstracts here
New Website: Elevate Children Funders Group
Elevate Children Funders Group, a network of philantropic organizations committed to advancing philanthropy that supports children and youth facing adversity, recently revamped its website. It now has a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section as well as an informational online brochure. You can also find the group's new strategic plan on the website.
Check out the new ECFG website here!
Conference: 3rd Biennial International Conference on Alternative Care for Children in South Asia 2018
The 3rd Biennial International Conference (BICON), organized by Udayan Care with support from Amity University and in partnership with UNICEF, is for everyone involved in the care of children and youth in out of home care in South Asia. It will bring together national and international experts, individuals and organizations working on child protection and alternative care, and civil society representatives from South Asian countries. The conference will take place on March 16-17, 2018 at Amity University, Delhi NCR, India, and the theme is Evolving Trends in Alternative Care for Children and Youth (with a Focus on South Asia).
CPC Learning Network Sri Lanka will participate at the 3rd BICON and is looking forward to learn from the South Asian experience and to share their work and experiences. 
Read more and reigster here
CPC Learning Network: Senior Program Officer
We are hiring! The Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University seeks a Senior Program Officer for Community Engagement and Outreach with the Care and Protection of Children (CPC) Learning Network. The Senior Program Officer will play a key role in facilitating communication across the CPC Learning Network and in promoting engagement from stakeholders at multiple levels. Primary responsibilities will be dedicated to facilitating the INSPIRE Working Group as well as engagement of the CPC Learning Network stakeholders working on other programs. Applications of qualified candidates will be considered on a rolling basis until the position is filled, so please apply soon!
Learn more about the position and apply here.  
Program on Forced Migration and Health: Program Officer
We are hiring again! The Program on Forced Migration and Health in the Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health (PFMH) at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University seeks a Program Officer. The incumbent will oversee the administrative and financial aspects of PFMH and the Care and Protection of Children (CPC) Learning Network.  Responsibilities include to: assist with all grant-related finance and accounting tasks; support research grant applications; oversee administrative aspects of the PFMH; and perform other tasks. Applications of qualified candidates will be considered on a rolling basis until the position is filled, so please apply soon!
Learn more about the position and apply here.  
UNRWA: Individual Service Provider - Protection Baseline Study of Non-ID Palestinians in Lebanon (Local/International Consultancy Positions)
In cooperation with the Norwegian Refugee Council in Lebanon, the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is recruiting a team of two consultants with prior experience of conducting protection assessments in humanitarian and development contexts. The team of consultants should include one senior consultant with at least 8 years of relevant experience and a second with at least five years of relevant experience. The study is expected to take 20-30 working days (for each consultant) and take place in the first half of 2018. The deadline to apply is February 5, 2018
Learn more about the position and apply here.  
Save the Children: Senior Capacity Building Advisor (Maternity Cover)
Save the Children is recruiting an experienced individual to be their Senior Capacity Building Advisor on a 12 month maternity cover (London-based with some travel). The role will be responsible for supporting the development and delivery of Child Protection in Emergencies (CPiE) capacity building programs as well as giving advisory support to the broader Humanitarian Capacity Building portfolio of specialist humanitarian programs. This position will be integral in supporting the CPiE Professional Development Program as it grows and adapts to cover two additional regions over the next year. The deadline to apply is today, January 31, 2018
Learn more about the position and apply here.  
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