HOW DO GOOD DEBATERS CLASH?
Five methods can be employed to attack any specific claim or argument that the other side makes about any specific issue or sub-issue in any debate round. 1. Direct denials or direct refutation. They say: “black;” You say: “white.” 2. Challenge the relevance of the opposition’s claim to the issue being debated. 3. Attack the warrants or reasons stated for the claim. 4. Attack the evidence or proof used to support the claim. 5. Turn the opponents’ claim, warrants or proof to your advantage.
Here are the steps used by the best debaters in the argument presentation process, or in the mechanics of making responsive, clashing arguments during a debate (called “embedded clash” by those who know): 1. Identify briefly the argument you are responding to; 2. Signpost, or preview, how many responses you have to that argument; 3. Give a label or a tag to your argument; 4. Perhaps (sometimes, but not always) explain your argument; 5. Identify the source and date of your evidence; 6. Read your evidence; 7. Explain why your argument matters, or beats their argument; and 8. Move on to your next argument.