This GCR solicitation targets multi-disciplinary team research that crosses directorate or division boundaries and is currently not supported by NSF programs, initiatives and research-focused Big Ideas. Proposers must make a convincing case that the research to be conducted is within NSF's purview and cannot be supported by existing NSF programs and multidisciplinary initiatives. The proposers should outline a five-year research plan delineated in two phases, Phase I: years 1-2, and Phase II: years 3-5. Successful proposals will be funded initially for two years and then each team's progress will be evaluated based on a report and presentation that the team will make to a panel of reviewers at NSF. Teams that show significant progress during the first two years will receive funding for an additional three years. Interested researchers may request up to $1,200,000 total for the first two years and $2,400,000 for the last three years.