February 18, 2016
The Eastern Prelacy will host a Town Hall Meeting with the U.S. Ambassador to Armenia, Richard M. Mills, Jr., on Monday, February 29, 7 to 8:30 pm, at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral, 221 E. 27th Street, New York City. The public is invited to attend to hear the Ambassador’s brief presentation that will be followed with a question and answer session. The Town Hall Meeting is open to the public and all are invited to attend.
The Central Executive Council of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia met last week in Antelias, Lebanon. Representing the Eastern Prelacy were His Eminence Archbishop Oshagan Choloyan and Mr. Noubar Megerian, vice chairman of the Prelacy’s Executive Council.
Bible readings for Sunday, February 21, Third Sunday of Great Lent, The Prodigal Son, are: Isaiah 54:11-55:13; 2 Corinthians 6:1-7; Luke 15:1-32.

Now the tax collectors and sinners were all drawing near to hear him. And the Pharisees and the scribes murmured, saying, “This man receives sinners and eats with them.”

So he told them this parable: “What man of you, having a hundred sheep, if he has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go after the one which is lost, until he finds it? And when he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance.

“Or what woman, having ten silver coins, if she loses one coin, does not light a lamp and sweep the house and seek diligently until she finds it? And when she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, ‘Rejoice with me, for I have found the coin which I had lost.’ Just so, I tell you, there is joy before the angels of God over one sinner who repents.”

And he said, “There was a man who had two sons; and the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father give me the share of property that falls to me.’ And he divided his living between them. Not many days later, the younger son gathered all he had and took his journey into a far country and there he squandered his property in loose living. And when he had spent everything, a great famine arose in that country, and he began to be in want. So he went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed swine. And he would gladly have fed on the pods that the swine ate; and no one gave him anything. But when he came to himself he said, ‘How many of my father’s hired servants have bread enough and to spare, but I perish here with hunger! I will arise and go to my father, and I will say to him, “Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son; treat me as one of your hired servants.”’ And he arose and came to his father. But while he was yet at a distance, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran and embraced him and kissed him. And the son said to him, ‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and before you; I am no longer worthy to be called your son.’ But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet; and bring the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and make merry; for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to make merry.

“Now his elder son was in the field; and as he came and drew near to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants and asked what this meant. And he said to him, ‘Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fatted calf, because he has received him safe and sound.’ But he was angry and refused to go in. His father came out and entreated him, but he answered his father, ‘Lo, these many years I have served you, and I never disobeyed your command; yet you never gave me a kid that I might make merry with my friends. But when this son of yours came, who has devoured your living with harlots, you killed for him the fatted calf! And he said to him, ‘Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. It was fitting to make merry and be glad, for this your brother was dead, and is alive; he was lost, and is found.’” (2 Corinthians 15:1-32)

For a listing of the coming week’s Bible readings click here
This Saturday, February 20, we commemorate St. Cyril (315-386) of Jerusalem, a doctor of the church. St. Cyril had a pleasant and conciliatory disposition; however he lived at a time when bishops were embroiled in bitter controversies and were quick to condemn any attempts at compromises, even calling such attempts as treason. Sixteen years of his thirty-five years as a bishop were spent in exile. When a famine hit Jerusalem, he sold some of the possessions of the church to raise money for the poor starving people. He was condemned for selling church property and was banished. His best known work that has survived, “The Catechetical Lectures,” is believed to be one of the earliest systematic accounts of Christian theology. The lectures consist of an introductory lecture, followed by eighteen lectures on the Christian faith that were used during Lent for those preparing to be baptized on Easter, and five lectures on the sacraments to be used after Easter. The lectures have been translated into many languages, including English and Armenian, and are noted for their presentation of the Christian faith in a positive light and maintaining a balance between correct belief and holy action.

Thousands of pilgrims would come to Jerusalem for Holy Week. Cyril instituted the liturgical forms for that week as they were observed in Jerusalem. A detailed account of Holy Week observances in Jerusalem in the fourth century is available thanks to a woman named Egeria (Etheria), believed to be a Spanish nun, who made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and kept a journal describing the liturgical practices at the various holy sites.

Our journey through Great Lent continues. This Sunday, February 21, is the Sunday of the Prodigal Son. The parable of the prodigal son shows God’s fatherly love and eagerness to forgive those who repent (See the Bible reading above).
Light from light, generation and down, you came to seek out the wondering sheep of our nature which you carried together with the cross on your shoulder; purify us also from our sins.

Holiest of the holy, purifier of those who exist, you swept your house, purified the world from sins and having found your image in it you renewed it, renew us also from our ancient sins.

With the prodigal son we cry out to you, tender-hearted Father, we have sinned against heaven and before you, the purifier from sins; come out with love to meet us, embrace us with a kiss and purify us from our sins.

Holy Mother of God, fountain of life which flowed from the heavenly Eden, which watered the thirsting earth with the Spirit’s wisdom, pray that we may be given a fountain of tears for the cleansing of our sins.
(From the Liturgical Canons of the Armenian Church for the Third Sunday of Lent, Sunday of the Prodigal Son)

Although there are references to a Sunrise Service in the Armenian Church as early as the 7th century, the service as we know it today is the work of the 12th century Catholicos, St. Nerses Shnorhali (The Graceful) whose music and prayers have greatly enriched the Armenian Church.

During Lent the Sunrise Service, which traditionally took place on Wednesday and Friday mornings during Lent, takes place on Sundays immediately following the closed-altar Divine Liturgy.

Although the Church takes on a mournful demeanor during Lent, the Sunrise Service is quite joyous with its main theme being “light,” representing our Lord. The word light (looys) appears more than any other word throughout the service, whereas the word “darkness” (khavar) is used just once.

The service consists of four parts, or sets. Each one follows the same pattern starting with a hymn, followed by a litany by the deacon, and a prayer by the priest. Each set has a different theme. Readings are from the book of Psalms.

The joyful music of the hymns and the stirring words make this one of the most pleasant and spiritually uplifting services in the Armenian Church.

The second of a six-part Prelacy Lenten lecture series took place last night at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral in New York City, presided over by His Grace Bishop Anoushavan, Vicar General. During the Lenten service before the singing of the hymn Der Voghormya, Bishop Anoushavan asked everyone to pray for peace in the world, and especially for our brothers and sisters in Aleppo in light of the recent attacks on the ARS Medical Clinic.
The Lenten lectures this year are focusing on the notion of service since His Holiness Aram I, Catholicos of the Holy See of Cilicia proclaimed 2016 as the “Year of Service.” 
Last night, Very Rev. Fr. Zareh Sarkissian presented “Jesus as the Servant of God.” Hayr Soorp spoke about Jesus as the unique servant of God who moved God’s plan forward to its climax for the salvation of the world, at the same time he discussed the life and ministry of Jesus as a model for his followers to emulate. To view Hayr Soorp’s presentation, please click below.
Bishop Anoushavan, Very Rev. Fr. Zareh, Rev. Fr. Hovnan, Rev. Fr. Mesrob and Rev. Fr. Mardiros less the table before program participants break bread over a Lenten vegan meal.
Next Wednesday, February 24, His Grace Bishop Anoushavan will focus on the idea of “Service in patristic thought.”
The Lenten Program is sponsored by the Prelacy’s Armenian Religious Education Council (AREC), the Prelacy Ladies Guild (PLG), and the Ladies’ Guild of St. Illuminator’s Cathedral. 
A regional Board of Trustees Workshop will take place for the parishes in the Midwest on Saturday, March 5, beginning at 10 am and concluding at 4:30 pm. The workshop is being hosted by All Saints Church in Glenview, Illinois. His Eminence Archbishop Oshagan will preside and members of the Religious and Executive Councils will participate. 

The 33rd Musical Armenia concert will take place on Friday, March 11, 8 pm at Weill Recital Hall at Carnegie Hall in New York City. This year the Musical Armenia committee is excited to present the pianist Sofya Melikyan and NUR (a collaboration of the lyric soprano Rosy Anoush Svazlian and the pianist/composer Andrea Manzoni. The Musical Armenia series is sponsored by the Eastern Prelacy and the Prelacy Ladies Guild. Tickets for the concert are twenty-five dollars.

This is the 33rd concert in this much-loved series that dates back to 1982. Established by the late Archbishop Mesrob Ashjian and the Prelacy Ladies Guild, Musical Armenia is dedicated to promoting young Armenian artists and to the performance of music by Armenian composers. Over the past thirty-four years many of the program’s performers have established solid professional careers.

Throughout Musical Armenia’s more than three-decades-long history the price of tickets have been kept low thanks to the support of dedicated sponsors who have made the continuation of the Musical Armenia tradition a priority. As a sponsor of Musical Armenia you can make a key contribution to the development of talented musicians as they strive for success in their various musical fields. All donations will be acknowledged in the concert booklet.

Donations in any amount are deeply appreciated. The categories of sponsorship are: Diamond ($1,000); Platinum ($500); Gold ($300); Silver ($200); Friend (any amount). Diamond, Platinum, and Gold sponsors will receive two complimentary tickets.

Click here to donate on line. Click here for a Sponsorship Form that can be mailed with your donation to the Armenian Prelacy, 138 East 39th Street, New York, NY 10016. For information or to purchase tickets contact the Prelacy by telephone (212-689-7810) or by email (sophie@armenianprelacy.org). 
Last Sunday Bishop Anoushavan Tanielian presided over the Divine Liturgy celebrated by Rev. Fr. Hrant Kevorkian at St. Sarkis Church in Dearborn, Michigan. His Grace delivered the sermon after which a special service of Dyaruntarach (Presentation of Jesus to the Temple) was presided by His Grace. More than thirty children under the age of three participated in the service. His Grace presented each child individually to the altar as the choir sang the hymn associated with this feast day, Ee Kirgs Aryal Dserounvouyn. “It was a wonderful service with an incredible turnout that filled St. Sarkis Church with the presence of our youth and the future of our community,” said Der Hrant.
More than thirty children under the age of three were presented at the altar by Bishop Anoushavan Tanielian.
Bishop Anoushavan, Rev. Fr. Hrant, and altar servers with parents and children who were presented at the altar in celebration of Dyaruntarach.
Brought to you by the Armenian National Education Committee (ANEC)
Death of Armen Alchian (February 19, 2013)
Economist Armen Alchian, one of the more prominent price theorists of the second half of the twentieth century, did not publish very intensively during his long and fruitful life, but very few of his articles were unimportant.

Alchian was born in Fresno, California, into an Armenian family, on April 12, 1914. In his introduction to Alchian’s selected works (1977), economist Ronald Coase made reference to the discrimination that the Armenians of Fresno, and his colleague too, suffered in the first half of the past century. He wrote: “This discrimination, which does not now exist, was not the result, Armen Alchian believes, of any natural unfriendliness or unreasonableness on the part of the other inhabitants of Fresno but was due to the strangeness of the Armenians’ manners and customs, which, because they were unusual and not quickly altered, were not understood and tolerated initially.” Alchian would go to write a paper about discrimination and information based on his personal experience.

Alchian attended California State University, Fresno, for two years before transferring to Stanford University in 1934, where he earned both a B.A. (1936) and a Ph.D. in Economics (1944) with a dissertation on “The Effects of Changes in the General Wage Structure.” During the war, he served as a statistician with the Army Air Corps (1942-1946). He joined the Economic Department at the University of California at Los Angeles in 1946, where he spent the rest of his career, while he was affiliated with the Rand Corporation for many years. He published his first major article, “Uncertainty, Evolution and Economic Theory,” in 1950, and became a full professor in 1958.

Armen Alchian was known to his students and colleagues and others as the founder of the "UCLA tradition" in economics, which emphasizes that individual behavior is "rational" and that this has many unanticipated consequences. It recognizes that "rationality" is the outcome of evolution and learning, and emphasizes frictions such as uncertainty that act as brakes on the individual's ability to make decisions and coordinate with one another.

Alchian was also known as the author (with William Allen) of the first year undergraduate textbook Exchange and Production (original title, University Economics), which has appeared in numerous editions since 1964. This book, familiar to many generations of undergraduates and graduate students alike, is unique. It is much more literary and humorous than any other modern economics textbook that deals with complex issues for an undergraduate audience. Example: “Since the fiasco in the Garden of Eden, most of what we get is by sweat, strain, and anxiety.” It also welcomes controversy rather than shying away from it, in the process daring the reader to disagree.

Because of its literary quality and complexity, the textbook generally did not work with undergraduate or even M.B.A. classes. But its impact was out of all proportion to its sales. Many graduate students, particularly at UCLA, and at the University of Washington, where Alchian’s student Steven Cheung taught), learned their basic economics from this book. Some of the University of Washington students went on to write best-selling textbooks that made many of Alchian and Allen’s insights more understandable to an undergraduate audience. While Alchian played the role of selfish cynic in his class, some who studied under him had the feeling that he put so much care and work into his low-selling text—and into his students—because of his concern for humanity. His best known student is William F. Sharpe, who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science in 1990 for his work on finance.

Alchian, a member of the Chicago school of economics, was the author of groundbreaking articles on information and uncertainty. He was a founder of the new institutional economics through his writings on property rights and transaction costs. His writings touched on issues of money, inflation, unemployment, and the theory of business investment. They were characterized by lucid exposition and a minimum of mathematic formalism.

Alchian was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1978 and became a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association in 1996. The Armen Alchian Chair in Economic Theory at UCLA was established in July 1997 with contributions from the UCLA Department of Economics, the Sarah Scaife Foundation and the Bradley Foundation.

Previous entries in “This Week in Armenian History” are on the Prelacy’s web site (www.armenianprelacy.org)
Brought to you by the Armenian National Education Committee (ANEC)
Of Assemblies and Spellings
The Greek word ekklesia (“assembly”) is the root of the word ecclesiastic in English and has become the word for “church” in a few Latin languages like French, Spanish, and Portuguese, as well as in Armenian:  yegeghetsi (եկեղեցի).

The Greek word has its Armenian counterpart, joghov (ժողով “assembly, gathering; meeting”), and this is why the title of the Book of Ecclesiastes (Ekklesiastes means “Gatherer” in Greek) has been translated in Armenian as Kirk Joghovoghi (Գիրք Ժողովողի).

The word joghov, which is the source for joghovurt (ժողովուրդ “people”), has also been used by Evangelical Armenians to denominate their temples as joghovaran (ժողովարան), even though they have retained the word “church” in English. 

If you wanted to gather people for any purpose, the verb to use would be joghvel (ժողվել), where popular use in Western Armenian has left aside the second o of the root joghov. Eastern Armenian uses the standard form joghovel (ժողովել).

The spelling of the verb joghvel, with վ instead of ու, represents an exception to the orthographic rule establishing that the sound v after a consonant and before a vowel is always spelled with the diphthong ու (u), which sounds v (e.g. arvesd – արուեստ “art”; badvel – պատուել “to honor”). This is why you cannot write joghuel (ժողուել), because the root of the word is joghov (ժողով) and not joghu (ժողու)! 

Previous entries in “The Armenian Language Corner” are on the Prelacy’s web site (www.armenianprelacy.org)

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Armenian Prelacy
138 E. 39th Street
New York, NY 10016
Checks payable to: Armenian Apostolic Church of America
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Thank you for your help.
“The presiding genius of turn-of-the-century Armenian women’s writing was Zabel Yesayan. Her novels, short stories and essays explored Armenian identity, female subjectivity, male-female relationships, orientalism, migration and exile within the context of enormous social upheaval and state-sanctioned violence. Yesayian’s writing before and after the Armenian Genocide reveals significant changes in the representation of Armenian female identity; thereby, demonstrating some of the ideological shifts and societal consequences occurring as a result of the Armenian Genocide.”
(From “A History of Armenian Women’s Writing, 1880-1922,” by Victoria Rowe)
IN THE RUINS: The 1909 Massacres of Armenians in Adana, Turkey
By Zabel Yessayan
Translated by G. M. Goshgarian

This is the newest of the three books presented here. Published early this year, In the Ruins is a powerful testimony of the Adana massacres, considered to be a prelude to the genocide in 1915. Hailed as a masterpiece, it has been translated into French and Turkish, and now, for the first time, into English.

262 pages, soft cover, $20.00 plus shipping and handling
By Zabel Yessayian
Translated by Jennifer Manoukian

The Gardens of Silihdar is a poignant narrative of Yessayian’s childhood and a vivid account of Armenian community life in Constantinople at the end of the nineteenth century.

163 pages, soft cover, $20.00 plus shipping and handling
By Zabel Yessayan

In addition to the novel My Soul in Exile, this volume includes other works, particularly those addressing the role of women in society. Yessayan  explores the thought process of creativity within the context of social and intellectual life in Constantinople in the early 1900s.

118 pages, soft cover, $20.00 plus shipping and handling

To order these or other books contact the Prelacy Bookstore by email (books@armenianprelacy.org) or telephone (212-689-7810). 

SIAMANTO ACADEMY—Meets every second Saturday of the month at the Hovnanian School, 817 River Road, New Milford, New Jersey. For information: anec@armenianprelacy.org or 212-689-7810.

February 24—Prelacy Lenten Program, “Service in patristic thought,” by Bishop Anoushavan Tanielian, at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral, 221 East 27th Street, New York City, 7 pm.

February 27—Sunday School Teachers’ Seminar, Mid-Atlantic Region, “Baptism, Chrismation, and the Eucharist: The Foundation of our Life in Christ,” at Sts. Vartanantz Church, 461 Bergen Boulevard, Ridgefield, New Jersey, 10 am to 3 pm, lunch 12 noon to 1 pm. Sponsored by the Armenian Religious Education Council (AREC)—Eastern Prelacy. The seminar will be conducted by Dn. Shant Kazanjian, AREC Director. For information contact the AREC office by phone (212-689-7810) or email (arec@armenianprelacy.org).

March 2—Prelacy Lenten Program, “We were all pledged at baptism to serve God,” by Dn. Shant Kazanjian, at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral, 221 East 27th Street, New York City, 7 pm.

March 5—Midwest Board of Trustees Regional Workshop, hosted by All Saints Armenian Church, Glenview, Illinois, 10 am to 4:30 pm.

March 9—Prelacy Lenten Program, “Qualities of the servants of the Lord,” by Archpriest Fr. Nerses Manoogian, at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral, 221 East 27th Street, New York City, 7 pm.

March 12—30th anniversary of St. Stephen’s Armenian Elementary School at Sorenson Center for the Arts (Babson College), Wellesley, Massachusetts. Tickets ($125) may be purchased online (www.mkt.com/ssaes) by email (30years@ssaes.org), or by phone (617-926-6979.

March 16—Prelacy Lenten Program, “Service is the obligation of the community and government structures,” by Mrs. Silva Takvorian, at St. Illuminator’s Cathedral, 221 East 27th Street, New York City, 7 pm.

March 11—33rd Musical Armenia, Weill Recital Hall at Carnegie Hall, 57th Street and 7th Avenue, with Sofya Melikian, piano; and NUR featuring Rosy Anoush Svazlian and Andrea Manzoni, soprano and piano. Tickets: $25. Box office: 212-247-7800; Prelacy: 212-689-7810; email@armenianprelacy.org.
Web pages of the parishes can be accessed through the Prelacy’s web site.
To ensure the timely arrival of Crossroads in your electronic mailbox, add email@armenianprelacy.org to your address book.
Items in Crossroads can be reproduced without permission. Please credit Crossroads as the source.
Parishes of the Eastern Prelacy are invited to send information about their major events to be included in the calendar. Send to: info@armenianprelacy.org
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