October/November 2023

Hello partners for water quality!

We have much news to share on progress by state, local, and sector partners to reduce nutrient and sediment pollution and improve local water quality in Pennsylvania’s share of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. 
For more details on the Phase 3 Watershed Implementation Plan (WIP) and Countywide Action Planning, visit the Phase 3 WIP website. For a broader educational look at nutrient and sediment pollution in local streams, rivers, and lakes in the watershed, including tips and success stories, visit Healthy Waters, Healthy Communities.
Please consider how you might join in or help support this work. Anyone interested in their county’s Phase 3 WIP County Wide Action plan can sign up to get involved. And help spread the word! Share this newsletter or the subscribe page. 
— DEP Bureau of Watershed Restoration and Nonpoint Source Management

DEP Bureau of Watershed Restoration and Nonpoint Source Management

DEP Bureau of Watershed Restoration and Nonpoint Source Management (BWRNSM) hosts the Clean Water Gathering of State Action Leaders and Countywide Action Planning Partners

On October 11, DEP BWRNSM hosted the Clean Water Gathering of State Action Leaders and Countywide Action Planning Partners. For the first time ever, DEP brought together county, state and federal partners to focus on over-arching, high-level needs, issues and challenges that require collaborative, collective strategies and ongoing efforts.
All 34 counties were represented, most with the conservation district manager and Countywide Action Plan (CAP) Coordinator in attendance. DEP’s Deputy Secretary of Water Programs and nine senior level directors attended as well: three from the DEP Office of Water Programs and one from DEP’s Bureau of Abandoned Mine Reclamation, as well as the State Conservation Commission Executive Secretary, County Commissioners Association of PA Executive Director, the PSU Ag Environment Center Director, the PA Director of the Chesapeake Bay Commission, and program managers from multiple agencies (DCNR, SRBC, PA Fish and Boat Commission, US Army Corps of Engineers, NRCS, and EPA). Over 80 people attended, finding time in busy schedules to spend half a day connecting, coordinating, communicating and collaborating on strategies that will further enhance Pennsylvania’s clean water efforts.
Countywide action planning adds tremendous value to county and local partners. As this process matures and expands, BWRNSM and state program action leaders are committed to continuing support and growth of this continually adaptive and evolving process. This meeting confirmed that program action leaders are willing and ready to collaborate and support this effort as it evolves.
The outstanding coordination efforts, both at the local county and state levels, through monthly one-on-one meetings with DEP CAP coordination staff, and through Programmatic Recommendations that counties have provided to state partners, have highlighted several important themes that have emerged during CAP implementation efforts. During the meeting, the partners agreed to a common list of five challenge areas that keep Pennsylvania from leveraging all available resources to continue successful implementation of the Phase 3 WIP and CAPs; expressed interest and need to work together to resolve these challenges and be able to continue expanding on Pennsylvania’s progress; and began identifying strategies to overcome these challenges.
BWRNSM’s Chesapeake Bay Watershed Restoration Division (CBWRD) will continue working with county and state partners in 2024 to apply the results of this meeting to identify and begin implementing "Strategies for Success", which is the next evolution of the Programmatic Recommendations. 
The work of this public-private partnership continues to grow and does not end with the 2025 Chesapeake Bay TMDL deadline. DEP's BWRNSM is committed to our county-state partnership’s growth through 2025 and beyond as we address our biggest challenges together.
Jill Whitcomb, BWRNSM Director, presents before state program action leaders and county partners
Jill Whitcomb, BWRNSM Director, presents before state program action leaders and county partners
State program action leaders and county partners collaborated on five key challenge areas.
State program action leaders and county partners collaborated on five key challenge areas.

Pennsylvania 4R Alliance conference held in Hershey

The PA 4R Alliance and Growmark FS hosted their annual conference on October 5. Jill Whitcomb, BWRNSM Director, presented information on agriculture’s role in water quality improvement outcomes in Pennsylvania’s local waters and the Chesapeake Bay, and also participated in a panel discussion.
John Clune, United States Geological Survey (USGS) Research Hydrologist, and Gary Shenk, Chesapeake Bay Program Modeler, presented information on water quality monitoring and modeling data, showing trends, needs and opportunities in the Chesapeake Bay. Eric Rosenbaum, 4R Alliance Executive Director, presented on science-based partnerships to improve the economic, environmental and social impacts of nutrient management. The meeting also included field trial observations, results and applicability to farm operations.
One of the projects highlighted was the Split Nitrogen Cost-Share Program. Farmers applied the same amount of nitrogen to crops, but split the application. In 2022, participating farms saw an average increase of 13 bushels/acre, which demonstrates an increased nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) overall. Funding for the event was provided by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program, with support from Growmark FS.
Discussing field-level nutrient and pest management at the 4R Alliance Conference.
Discussing field-level nutrient and pest management at the 4R Alliance Conference.

Programs and Projects by Local, State and Federal Partners

DEP releases draft 2024 Pennsylvania Integrated Water Quality Report and invites public comment

DEP has released for public comment the draft Pennsylvania 2024 Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Report, the biennial update on the health of streams and lakes statewide. DEP submits this report to U.S. EPA and the public every two years, as required by the federal Clean Water Act of 1972. Waters are assessed for one or more of four uses—drinking water, fish consumption, aquatic life, and recreational use—and determined to be supporting these uses or impairing these uses.
DEP welcomes comments on the report. Comments can be made online through the DEP eComment system; emailed to ecomment@pa.gov; or mailed to the DEP Policy Office, Rachel Carson State Office Building, P.O. Box 2063, Harrisburg, PA 17105. All comments must include the commenter’s name and address. The deadline for comments is December 11.
A color-coded interactive map in the “2022 to 2024 Changes” section of the report makes it easy for Pennsylvanians to see whether their local lake or stream is supporting or impaired and whether this reflects a change in status over the past two years. With one click, users can see the details on which use (or uses) DEP assessed the waterway for. If it is impaired, they can see both the cause, such as habitat alteration, flow change, siltation, and the source.
For the 2024 report, DEP expanded assessment of waterways, with 7,566 stream miles and 103,777 public lake acres newly assessed or reassessed for a use. The 2024 report also showcases water quality restoration, noting that since 2004, approximately 967 miles of streams and 28,727 acres of public lakes have been restored. A color-coded interactive map shows which waterways have been restored for which uses and when.
Pennsylvania is a national leader in the extent of its water quality assessment. The 2024 Integrated Water Quality Report reflects the cumulative assessment of 99 percent (85,030 miles) of stream miles and 99 percent (103,777 acres) of lake acres statewide since Pennsylvania began reporting for the Clean Water Act.

PA Clean Water Academy releases two new courses

DEP has released two new free educational, training courses on its Pennsylvania Clean Water Academy: Introduction to Guiding Principles of Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration and Using the New 2024 Integrated Water Quality Report Viewer. DEP's Division of Wetlands, Encroachments and Training (DWET) in the Bureau of Waterways Engineering and Wetlands (BWEW) developed the ecosystem restoration training as the first part of a multi-part training, and it is intended to be an introduction or overview presentation. DWET is developing additional, more intensive courses that will cover many of the topics that are introduced.

DEP Awards Over $3.8 million to projects restoring the health of local watersheds

DEP awarded over $3.8 million in Section 319 Nonpoint Source Management grants to 15 Pennsylvania projects that will help communities restore impaired watersheds. Nonpoint source pollution is water pollution that doesn’t come from a single specific discharge point, such as a pipe, but rather from diffuse sources, which are many smaller or scattered sources from which pollutants may be released. About 95 percent of water-quality-impaired watersheds in Pennsylvania are affected by nonpoint source pollution. Section 319 grants focus on reducing: nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment pollution from agricultural activities, urban stormwater runoff, and streambank and shoreline erosion; and iron, aluminum, and acidity pollution associated with energy resource extraction and acid mine drainage (AMD). Pennsylvania Chesapeake Bay counties that received funding include Bedford, Centre, Chester, Lancaster, Luzerne, Mifflin, Schuylkill, and York.

The Shapiro Administration invests $175.7 million in water infrastructure projects across the Commonwealth

Governor Josh Shapiro announced the investment of $175.7 million for 25 drinking water and wastewater projects across 16 counties through the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Investment Authority (PENNVEST). The projects include replacing lead pipes, rehabilitating aging water pumps, and reducing costs resulting from water loss. The Shapiro Administration is committed to ensuring every community in the Commonwealth has access to clean drinking water, safeguarding public health and advancing environmental justice. These updates will help Pennsylvania support communities as they address backlogged water system needs and help ensure high-quality drinking water for Pennsylvanians.

The TMDL Process: A Puzzle of Stressors, Models, Restoration, and Monitoring webinar

The national 303(d) Restoring Our Impaired Waters webinar series presents: The TMDL Process: A Puzzle of Stressors, Models, Restoration, and Monitoring webinar which will take place on November 9 at 1:00pm. This webinar will focus on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) development and implementation process. Attendees will hear from presenters Matthew Ehrhart and John Jackson about the challenges associated with stressors when developing a TMDL, as well as the importance of monitoring and assessment to accurately track the progress of the TMDL.

State Conservation Commission (SCC) announces request for proposals for Conservation Excellence Grant (CEG) Chesapeake Bay watershed public-private partnerships/special projects

The SCC has received funds from U.S. EPA’s Most Effective Basin (MEB) Program for distribution to CEG-participating conservation districts. The SCC will be awarding these funds to projects that support public-private partnerships or for special projects that involve partnerships with businesses and corporations or non-profit groups, such as local watershed and farm organizations.
The SCC is seeking proposals for funding to conservation districts for fiscal year 2023-2024 to be used to implement best management practices (BMPs) that reduce nutrient and sediment loading on agricultural operations in high priority, disadvantaged communities. Projects must be in a “most effective basin” as classified by U.S. EPA.
Any conservation district wishing to apply for funds should submit a proposal to the SCC by November 20, 2023. For more information, contact Eric Cromer at ecromer@pa.gov.
State Conservation Commission logo

Pennsylvania's Agriculture Conservation Assistance Program sees continued success in all 67 counties

In 2022, the Agriculture Conservation Assistance Program (ACAP) dedicated $154 million from the Clean Streams Fund to reduce nonpoint source (NPS) pollution in Commonwealth waterways. The SCC continues to allocate this funding to all 67 counties for projects that prevent nutrient and sediment pollution. To date, a total of $140 million of the $154 million has been encumbered to conservation districts for projects. Of the 366 approved applications, 217 have been contracted, 92 are active, and 21 have been completed.
Administrative training will continue to take place, in partnership with PennState Extension, for district staff to learn more about the program.

Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay and Perdue Farms awarded $1 million NFWF grant to accelerate full-farm conservation efforts on Pennsylvania poultry operations

On October 16, the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, in partnership with U.S. EPA, the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) and Perdue Farms, announced a new corporate sustainability initiative to support conservation practice implementation on poultry farms throughout Pennsylvania. This work is funded by a $1 million NFWF Innovative Nutrient and Sediment Reduction (INSR) grant. Perdue has also committed $300,000 to the initiative. This project intends to break down one of the greatest barriers by providing financial and technical support to up to 80 of Perdue’s organic poultry farmers in Pennsylvania.
Rather than focusing on improving one aspect of an operation, this project prioritizes full-farm conservation. This approach considers a full spectrum of solutions to balance environmental concerns, while also meeting the operational and economic needs of the farmer.
As part of this project, the funding will provide and leverage cost-share dollars to install approximately 36 conservation practices, such as manure stacking and mortality composting sheds, riparian forest buffers, and vegetative environmental buffers (also known as windbreaks or shelterbelts).

U.S. EPA and NFWF invest $5.64 million in projects to improve water quality in Pennsylvania’s Chesapeake Bay watershed

On October 16, U.S. EPA Mid-Atlantic Regional Administrator Adam Ortiz announced a $9.6 million investment to restore water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed funded by the federal Bipartisan Infrastructure Law through the NFWF INSR program. Six Pennsylvania partners received over $5.64 million in funding:

National Fish Passage Program helps fund largest dam removal in Pennsylvania

The Oakland Dam, located on the North Branch of the Susquehanna River, was originally built in 1929 to provide power to a nearby railroad depot and hospital for over 60 years. In the 1990s, the dam became obsolete and no longer cost-effective; over time, it became hazardous to boaters and caused flooding upstream.
On September 18, removal of the 755 foot long, 16 foot high Oakland Dam marked the largest dam removal in Pennsylvania. American Rivers lauded Pennsylvania as a leader in dam removal, saying it has removed more than any other state.
Sportfish, recreationists and nearby residents will benefit from the success of this project. With the dam removal, more than 250 miles of stream and aquatic habitats are reconnected, providing more places for sportfish, freshwater mussels and other fish and wildlife to live and grow. For decades, the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), along with partners including DEP, has been working together to restore migratory fish in the lower Susquehanna River. The removal of the Oakland Dam brings Pennsylvania closer to their return.
Photo of dam removal project
Picture: U.S Fish and Wildlife Service

Mid-Atlantic Planning Collaboration hosts high-resolution land use/land cover and its applications to land use planning webinar

On November 9, at 12:00pm, the Mid-Atlantic Planning Collaboration (MAPC) will host a webinar regarding applications of the Chesapeake Bay Program’s high-resolution land use/land cover (LULC) data. This webinar will explore the one-meter resolution LULC data and how it can be used by local land use planners. Speakers will present case studies of how they’ve used the LULC data in their work: 1) implementing best management practices to maximize local watershed restoration efforts, 2) tracking tree canopy cover changes and prioritizing planting locations to meet Climate Action Plan goals, and 3) using the statewide land use map for comprehensive planning and land preservation. The high-resolution LULC can be coupled with high-resolution hydrography data to target stream restoration efforts, identify riparian planting opportunities, develop watershed restoration plans and more.

Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) invests $3.5 million to preserve 18 farms and 1,336 acres in 13 counties

On October 12, PDA announced it preserved 1,336 acres on 18 farms in 13 counties, forever protecting them from residential or commercial development. The newly preserved farms in the Chesapeake Bay watershed are in Berks, Chester, Dauphin, Franklin, Lancaster, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming and York counties.
The investment of more than $3.1 million in state dollars and $433,433 in county dollars to purchase land development rights preserves prime farmland, helping ensure that Pennsylvania farms can continue feeding our families and economy in the future.

DCNR opens public survey on plans for a new Susquehanna Riverlands State Park in York County

On October 11, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) Secretary Cindy Adams Dunn announced a public survey requesting input on plans for Susquehanna Riverlands State Park in York County. The survey will close November 1. Feedback from the survey will be considered as part of a master plan DCNR’s Bureau of State Parks is preparing.

DCNR announces investment of $52.5 million in local recreation, conservation and watershed projects

On October 5, Gov. Josh Shapiro and DCNR Secretary Cindy Adams Dunn announced a $52.5 million investment for more than 225 recreation and conservation projects, many in Pennsylvania’s Chesapeake Bay watershed, that will create new recreational opportunities, conserve natural resources and help revitalize local communities. Investments are being made in a variety of proposals, including 23 trail projects; protecting nearly 6,835 acres of open space; 13 projects for river conservation; 13 community and watershed forestry projects; and 99 projects to develop or rehabilitate recreation, park and conservation areas and facilities.

Pennsylvania Outdoor Corps seeks public land partner projects

The Pennsylvania Outdoor Corps (PAOC) is seeking projects for its 2024 season. Municipalities and non-profits can host PAOC crews on a cost-share basis to complete work on public lands. The PAOC employs youth ages 15 to 24 to complete conservation and outdoor recreation projects in parks and forests across Pennsylvania. The DCNR-led program engages underserved citizens and trains the next generation of conservation leaders.
Crews are located throughout the state and each crew is staffed with professional leaders that work with a local project coordinator to oversee project implementation. Typical projects include tree planting, riparian corridor improvement and maintenance, mechanical invasive species removal, hiking trail improvements, light construction and community shade tree inventories. Hosts are responsible for purchasing any needed materials and specialty tools. Crews are staffed with six to eight people and bring basic trail maintenance tools and can-do attitudes. To submit a project for consideration, contact Mike Piaskowski, Outdoor Corps Program Manager, at mpiaskowsk@pa.gov.
Williamsport Adult Crew planting stakes and establishing exclusion fences in Rider Park, Trout Run.
Picture: Williamsport Adult Crew planting stakes and establishing exclusion fences in Rider Park, Trout Run.

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) releases social media guide for partners

Pennsylvania Association of Conservation Districts (PACD) is currently running a campaign to raise awareness about CREP to enroll more farmers and landowners and ask that individuals share the message with their network to amplify the campaign. A guide has been complied with some suggested posts to share on social media channels. The guide also provides recommended posts as a guide to create unique variations. The PA CREP Program is funded in part by DEP Growing Greener.

The Chesapeake Bay Program shares the new State of Chesapeake Forests 2.0 Storymap

The Chesapeake Bay Program’s 2017/2018 one-meter resolution land use/land cover data and accompanying land use/land cover change data gives users an incredible opportunity to learn about Chesapeake forests at a finer scale than ever before. The new Chesapeake Forests 2.0 storymap will use this new data to provide an updated understanding of the state of Chesapeake forests and how they are changing. This evaluation will cover forests in more natural settings, as well as tree cover in the cities and communities where many people live and play. As more complex analyses are conducted, the storymap will be updated to reflect a growing understanding of Chesapeake forests.
screenshot of storymap

Funding Available Now

Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) is accepting Maryland Conowingo Pay for Success Nutrient and Sediment Reduction Project proposals

SRBC is accepting nutrient and sediment reduction project proposals under the Maryland Conowingo Watershed Implementation Plan Program. The deadline for proposals is December 20. Through a memorandum of understanding, SRBC will act as financing authority to administer more than $20 million provided by the state of Maryland to meet nutrient reduction goals of the Conowingo Watershed Implementation Plan (CWIP).
The CWIP addresses nutrient loads entering the Chesapeake Bay as a result of the Conowingo Dam reaching its nutrient and sediment trapping capacity. It has been determined that the reservoir has reached dynamic equilibrium and is no longer preventing a portion of the pollutant load from flowing downstream. Questions should be directed to ConowingoWIP@srbc.gov.

Grant funding available to improve watersheds in York and Lancaster Counties

The Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission (PFBC) announced on October 17 that grant funding is available for stream habitat improvement projects in York and Lancaster Counties. Funding for the grant program is being provided by two sources, the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and the Muddy Run Pumped Storage Project. No single project will receive more than $75,000 in funding. Applicants are encouraged to secure matching funds in the form of grants from other institutions, cash, in-kind labor, equipment, materials and supplies.
To be eligible, projects must be in York or Lancaster counties and be a habitat improvement or a sediment reduction project. Projects may include stream improvement, agricultural best management practices, and small dam removal projects. Project applicants must use the application form specified in the grant application package. Project applications must be postmarked no later than January 15, 2024.This round of projects is expected to be announced in April 2024. For more information about applying for this grant program, contact Dave Dippold, PFBC Division of Habitat Management, at ddippold@pa.gov.

National Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) funding for conservation easements is now available to Pennsylvania landowners

On October 16, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service announced funding for Pennsylvania landowners interested in restoring, enhancing and protecting agricultural land and wetlands through the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP). While NRCS does accept ACEP applications year-round, producers and landowners should apply by November 13, 2023, to be considered for funding in the current cycle.
This year, federal Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) funding has provided additional financial opportunities for the program, as agricultural land and wetlands play a critical role in climate mitigation. ACEP provides financial and technical assistance to help conserve agricultural lands and wetlands and their related benefits. ACEP IRA funds are available to purchase both Agricultural Land Easements (ALE) and Wetlands Reserve Easements (WRE). To learn more about ACEP and other technical and financial assistance available through NRCS conservation programs, visit Get Started with NRCS or contact your local USDA Service Center.

Apply now for Climate-Smart Agriculture Grants from Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences

Pennsylvania dairy producers interested in improving sustainability and profitability in their farm may be interested in applying for this grant opportunity with the CARAT (Climate-smart Agriculture that is Profitable, Regenerative, Actionable, and Trustworthy) Project. Applications are now open. Visit the Center for Dairy Excellence website for information on how to apply online or via mail.
The CARAT Project is led by Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences and partners, with funding from Partnerships for Climate Commodities, a USDA initiative. The goal of the project is to help Pennsylvania dairy producers to implement climate-smart practices that will lead to enhanced sustainability and profitability in their operations.
The project will involve 69 dairy producers across three cohorts - each representative of the various scales and types of dairies in Pennsylvania. The participating farms will be selected through a three-step process: pre-qualification, development of climate-smart plans for all pre-qualified farms, and selection of implementation farms.

Counties in Action

Wetlands, meadows and creek restoration project restores a beautiful ecosystem in Londonderry Township, Lancaster County

Prior to the restoration work, which began in May 2022, the area of the Conewago Creek along Hoffer Road in Londonderry Township was plagued with exceptionally steep streambanks, large areas of sediment deposits, little to no stream buffer, frequent flooding and high amounts of nutrient and sediment pollution.
A plan was conceptualized in 2005 to remove 125,000 cubic yards of legacy sediment, which would create expanded flood capacity, remove nutrients from the system, restore 15.2 acres of the onsite wetlands, restore 4,877 of stream, and create an additional 2,988 feet of stream to create a more resilient creek and expand and enhance wildlife habitat. The yearly sediment load would be reduced by 509 tons.
Because the property affected lies in both Lancaster and Dauphin Counties, a tremendous amount of collaboration was required to make the project a reality. Funding sources include NFWF, Mariner East Pipeline II (Conewago Creek water quality improvements), Growing Greener (stream restoration, Conewago Creek bioswales and water quality testing for the Conewago Creek restoration project), Pennsylvania American Waters environmental grant, SRBC Consumptive Use Mitigation grant, Dauphin CAP Grant, Lancaster Clean Water Fund and Lancaster Clean Water Partners (ARPA).
The site today is a beautiful place to visit, where the restored wetlands are creating a new habitat for native species, there are walking trails and cleaner water is flowing downstream. More information about the project can be found at the Londonderry Township website.
Completed project in Londonderry Township.
Completed project in Londonderry Township.

Gettysburg High School class of 1978 gives back by planting trees

As the culmination of their 45th reunion weekend, classmates planted trees behind Gettysburg Area High School (GAHS) with the help of the Adams County Watershed Alliance, Adams County Conservation District and Chesapeake Bay Foundation.
Tree planting
Picture: Russell and Nina Redding plant a tree behind Gettysburg High School Sunday

Blair County Conservation District holds buffer and CREP workshops

Blair County Conservation District held four multi-functional riparian buffer workshops highlighting buffers and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). Multi-functional buffers provide an opportunity for landowners to plan perennial plants that produce a harvestable product. A total of 54 people registered for the four events. The district received $3,000 for the project through the CREP Mini-grant Program for Conservation Districts. Visit the Pennsylvania Association of Conservation Districts website for more information and to apply.

F&M Trust employees plant over 500 trees and shrubs to create a riparian buffer on a Shippensburg farm

More than 250 employees of F&M Trust recently spent an afternoon on a Shippensburg farm planting trees and shrubs as part of a conservation effort led by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. The employees planted more than 500 trees and shrubs on three acres of farmland, creating a riparian buffer that will increase water quality and reduce pollution in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
Shippensburg tree planting
Picture: Shippensburg tree planting. Franklin County Free press

414 acres of forestland added to Elk State Forest by Western PA Conservancy

There is now more land in Cameron County for hikers to explore and wildlife to thrive, thanks to the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy’s permanent protection of 414 acres of forestland in Gibson Township. The property was immediately conveyed to DCNR to become a new addition to Elk State Forest, one of several popular state forests in the PA Wilds that safeguards water quality, large forests and wildlife habitat for many species including deer, black bear and elk. This newly conserved forested land protects more than 6,500 feet of frontage along Driftwood Branch Sinnemahoning Creek and contains mountain streams, small wetland areas, old agricultural fields, and mature timber stands.
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, PA 17101